JINR great physicists

Alexander Mikhailovich BALDIN (1926 – 2001)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union,1972. Graduated from Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 1949; Prof., 1965. Worked at the Physical Institute, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1949–68. Director of the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR, 1968. Studies of electromagnetic interactions between elementary particles and nuclei; development of the physical basis of charged particle acceleration. Headed the transformation of the JINR Synchrophasotron into the first relativistic nuclei accelerator. 

Dmitry Ivanovich BLOKHINTSEV (1908 – 1979)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1958. Graduated from Moscow State University, 1930; faculty member there; Prof., 1936. Headed the design and construction of the world's first nuclear power plant. JINR Director, 1956–65. Director of the Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 1965. His first studies were in the quantum theory of solids, semiconductor physics, the acoustics of heterogeneous moving media, and quantum mechanics. From 1947, worked in nuclear physics and engineering: theory of nuclear chain reactions and reactors; elementary particle theory. Authored the first Soviet textbook on quantum mechanics. President of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, 1966. Advisor to the Scientific Council with the United Nations Secretary General, 1967. 

Nikolai Nikolaevich BOGOLIUBOV (1909 – 1992)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1946. Academician, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1953. Started his higher education with entering immediately a postgraduate programme at the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, the Soviet Union, in 1925. Worked at the Academies of Sciences of the Ukraine and Soviet Union. Secretary Academician of the Section of Mathematics, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1963. JINR Director, 1965. Main fields of research: approximate techniques in mathematical analysis; mathematical physics; asymptotic techniques of nonlinear mechanics; dynamic system theory; statistical physics; quantum field theory. Developed the technique of a distribution function chain for the theory of nonequilibrium processes (1946); provided a mathematical substantiation of the microscopic theory of superfluidity (1947) and the first proving of the dispersion relations in the quantum field theory (1956); developed a mathematical theory of superconductivity (1958). Methods which he developed for superfluidity and superconductivity are also used in other fields of theoretical physics – for example, in nuclear theory. Created scientific schools in nonlinear mechanics, statistical physics, and quantum field theory. Member of a number of foreign academies (Bulgaria, Germany, Poland, the U.S., and more). 

Venedikt Petrovich DZHELEPOV (1913 – 1999)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1966. Graduated from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute in 1937. In 1941–43, worked at the Physics and Technology Institute, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union; in 1943–48, at the Institute of Atomic Energy, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. Deputy Director of the Institute of Nuclear Problems, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union (now the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR), 1948–56. From 1956, Director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR. Conducted research in nuclear and elementary particle physics. From 1965, developed nuclear physics applications in medicine. Headed the creation of the first medical proton beam (up to 200 MeV) in the Soviet Union for oncological treatment. 

Georgy Nikolaevich FLEROV (1913 – 1990)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1953. Academician, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1968. In 1938–42, worked at the Institute of Physics and Technology, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, where under the supervision of Igor Kurchatov began research in nuclear physics. In 1941–43, served in the Soviet army. In 1943–60, worked at the Institute of Atomic Energy. From 1960, Director of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR. In 1940, together with L.I. Rusinov, showed that during the fission of a uranium nucleus, more than two neutrons are emitted. Also in 1940, together with K.A. Petrzhak, discovered the spontaneous fission of heavy nuclei. Supervised the development of neutron and gammalogging techniques and equipment for oil exploration (1951). From 1953, studied interaction between compound nuclei and problems of the synthesis of new elements. Under his supervision, isotopes of transfermium elements 102, 103, 104, 105, and 106 were synthesized; their physical and chemical properties were studied; spontaneously fissionable isomers and the phenomenon of delayed proton emission were discovered; developed were the techniques of producing and accelerating multicharged ions of heavy atoms; and started were experiments on the synthesis of superheavy elements in reactions with heavy ions. 

Ilya Mikhailovich FRANK (1908 – 1990)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1946. Academician, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1968. In 1930, graduated from Moscow State University. In 1930–34, worked at the Optical Institute; in 1934–70, at the Physical Institute, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. Organizer and Director (1957) of the Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR. In parallel, from 1971, worked at the Institute of Nuclear Research. Professor at Moscow State University (1940). Main fields of research: physical optics and nuclear physics. As early as a student, under the supervision by S.I. Vavilov, studied the processes of luminescence extinguishing in liquids. Then, studied photochemical reactions by optical techniques. In 1937, together with I.E. Tamm, interpreted the Cherenkov effect. For this work, I.M. Frank, P.A. Cherenkov, and I.E. Tamm were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics (1958, "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"). Together with V.L. Ginzburg, did the first study of transitional radiation. Developed the theory of the Doppler effect (the complex and anomalous one) in a refracting medium. Together with L.V. Groshev, experimentally studied the production of the electron – positron pairs by gammaquanta. Studied the propagation and multiplication of neutrons in heterogeneous uranium – graphite systems. A cycle of works by I.M. Frank deals with light nuclei reactions in which neutrons are emitted and fast neutron interaction with nuclei. Proposed and developed a pulsed neutron production technique and, as part of this work, discovered the socalled diffusion cooling of neutrons. 

Mikhail Grigoryevich MESHCHERYAKOV (1910 – 1994)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1953. Graduated from Leningrad University in 1936. In 1936–47, worked at the Radium Institute, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. Deputy Director of the Institute of Atomic Energy, 1947–48. Director of the Institute of Nuclear Problems (now the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR), 1948–56. Professor at Moscow State University from 1954. Main fields of research: accelerators; nuclear and elementary particle physics. Together with D.V. Efremov and A.L. Mints, headed the construction of the first synchrocyclotron in the Soviet Union (up to 680 MeV). Research performed by M.G. Meshcheryakov allowed resonance effects to be observed in nucleonnucleon interactions and pimeson spectrum dependence on the irradiated nucleus size to be determined. A number of works on the automation of physics research. 

Bruno PONTECORVO (1913–1993)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1958. Academician, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1964. Graduated from Rome University in 1933; worked there with Enrico Fermi. In 1936–40, worked at the Radium Institute, Paris. In 1940–50, worked in the U.S., Canada, and Britain. In 1950, came to the Soviet Union and worked at the Institute of Nuclear Problems, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union (now the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR). Main fields of research: neutron moderation; neutron capture by nuclei; nuclear isomery; physics of weak interactions; neutrino physics; astrophysics. Proposed the neutron logging technique for oil exploration and the chlorine – argon technique of neutrino detection. Proposed using accelerator neutrino beams for studying the fundamental properties of the neutrino. 

Fedor Lvovich SHAPIRO (1915 – 1973)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1968. Graduated from Moscow State University in 1941. From 1945, worked at the Institute of Physics, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. Deputy Director of the Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, 1959. Professor at Moscow State University (1967). Main fields of research: nuclear and neutron physics. Proposed and experimentally substantiated the technique of neutron spectroscopy based on neutron moderation time in lead. Using this technique, discovered an excited state of 4He and generalized the law of slow neutron absorption by nuclei. Proposed the technique of producing polarized neutrons by passing them through a polarized proton target. Using this technique, studied the polarized neutron interaction with polarized nuclei, including deuterium. Discovered experimentally ultracold neutrons and studied their properties. Showed that the neutron resonance magnetic moments can be measured on the basis of their shift in a magnetic field. 

Vladimir Iosifovich VEKSLER (1907 – 1966)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1946. Academician, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1958. Secretary Academician of the Section of Nuclear Physics, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1963–66. Graduated from Moscow Institute of Power Engineering, 1931. From 1936, worked at the Physical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union; in parallel, from 1949, worked in Dubna. Established and, from 1954, headed the Laboratory of High Energies at JINR. Main fields of research: physical principles of charged particle acceleration; high energy physics; cosmic rays. Developed new techniques of charged particle acceleration. Proposed the principle of phase stability (1944), which raised several thousand times the limit of accelerated particle energy. In 1956–66, developed the fundamentals of the socalled collective acceleration technique. Headed the development of the first Soviet synchrotron (1947) and the synchrophasotron in Dubna (1957). Initiated the establishment of the "Nuclear Physics" journal (1965); was its Chief Editor. Created a school of specialists in accelerator physics and engineering. 

Sergei Nikolaevich VERNOV (1910 – 1982)
Corresponding Member, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1953. Academician, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 1968. Graduated from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute in 1931; then worked at the Radium Institute, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union. From 1936, worked at the Physical Institute, the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union; from 1944, Prof. at Moscow State University. Main field of research: origins and properties of the cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere and beyond. Discovered and studied the latitude effect in the cosmic rays in stratosphere and found the energy spectrum of the primary radiation. Studied transitional effects in cosmic rays and determined the origins of their electron and photon component. Together with A.E. Chudakov et al., discovered the Earth's external radiation zone. 
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